Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century
- King John signs the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning men (nobles and knights) and restricts the king's power.
- Beijing captured by Mongols, initiating the Yuan Dynasty in China.
- Fourth Council of the Lateran.
- Otto IV deposed as King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor, replaced by Frederick II (King 1212-1250).
- England - John, King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Count of Anjou (ruled England 1167 - 1216)
- France - Philippe II, Auguste, King of France (1180 - 1223)
- Holy Roman Empire:
- Holy See - Pope Innocent III (1198 - 1216)
- Mongol Empire - Genghis Khan, Mongol Khan (1206 - 1227)
- Venice - Pietro Ziani Doge of Venice (ruled 1205 - 1229)