Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century
- August 12 - Florence is captured by Spanish troops under Prince Philibert of Orange. The Medici are restored in the person of the Pope's nephew Alessandro de Medici
- Knights of Malta are formed when the Knights Hospitaller are given Malta by Pope Clement VIII
- Ducal palace of Celle constructed
- In Brazil there was a new expedition from Martin Afonso de Souza to patrol the entire coast, banish the French, and to create the first colonial towns: Sao Vicente and Sao Paulo.
- Austrian forces capture Gran in Hungary, and raid as far as Buda.
- Ivan IV of Russia (Ivan The Terrible), first czar of all Russia.
- November 6 - Josias Simler ,Swiss scholar, mostly known as the author of the first book pertaining entirely to the Alps.
- Thomas Jones later known as Twm Shon Catti , Welsh outlaw,called the Welsh Robin Hood.(approximately)
- Jan Kochanowski
- Christopher Bathory, a prince of Transylvania
- John Whitgift, English archbishop