Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century
- April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte d'Enghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin.
- May - Emperor Charles V again invades eastern France
- June 19 - August 18 - Imperial siege of St. Dizier in eastern France
- July 19 - September 14 - English forces under Henry VIII besiege and capture Boulogne.
- September 18 - Peace of Crépy - Peace between Charles and Francis. The war between France and England continues.
- October 9 - French forces under the Dauphin assault Boulogne, but are ultimately unsuccessful.
- Italian botanist Luca Ghini publishes the first herbarium
- Founding of the University of Königsberg
- Hungary is invaded by the Turks for the third time and gets robbed of the crown jewels
- First occurrence of rats in North America
- Gustav I of Sweden signs an alliance with France
- January 19 - King Francis II of France
- March 11 - Torquato Tasso, Italian poet
- May 24 - William Gilbert, English scientist ,pioneer in the study of magnetism († 1603)
- November 27 - Ascanio Trombeti, Italian composer