Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century
- July 10 - Lady Jane Grey becomes Queen of England for nine days.
- July 19 - Lady Jane Grey is replaced by Mary I of England as Queen of England after having that title for just nine days.
- August 2 - Battle of Marciano. French forces invading Italy under Marshal Blaise de Monluc are defeated by an imperial army under the Marquis of Marignano and are forced to retreat into Siena, which is besieged by the imperialists.
- Battle of Sievershausen - Elector Maurice of Saxony defeats the Catholic forces of Margrave Albert of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. Maurice is mortally wounded.
- Russia, Opening of the maritime way of the White sea by the British captain Chancellor, beginning of the trade with the England
- February 28 - Michel de Montaigne, writer and philosopher (+ 1592)
- December 13 - King Henry IV of France