Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century
- The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands.
- July 6 - Treaty of Edinburgh between England, France and Scotland. The French withdraw from Scotland. This largely ends the "Auld Alliance" between France and Scotland, and ends the wars between England and its northern neighbor.
- August 17 - the Roman Church is overthrown and Protestantism was established as the national religion in Scotland.
- Jean Nicot introduces tobacco in the form of snuff to the French court
- Andrea Andreani, Italian artist (possibly in 1540)
- August 7 - Elizabeth Bathory, Hungarian serial killer