Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century
- February 22 - Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published
- July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe.
- November 16 - Battle of Lützen
- Christina becomes queen of Sweden; five regents, headed by Axel Oxenstierna, govern country.
- Antigua and Barbuda is first colonized by England
- Portuguese driven out of Bengal.
- Charles I of England issues charter for the colony of Maryland (named in honor of Queen Henrietta Maria), under control of Lord Baltimore.
- Sir Francis Windebank made chief Secretary of State in England.
- August 29 - John Locke (philosopher).
- October 20 - Sir Christopher Wren (architect, astronomer, mathematician).
- November 24 - Baruch Spinoza, Dutch philosopher
- November 28 - Jean Baptiste Lully, French composer