Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century
- January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga
- May 14 - Four year-old Louis XIV becomes King of France upon the death of his father, Louis XIII.
- May 19 - Battle of Rocroi: French victory over the Spanish at Rocroi, France.
- July 13 - English Civil War: Battle of Roundway Down - In England, Lord Henry Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, commanding the Royalist forces, wins a crushing victory over the Parliamentarian Sir William Waller.
- Austro-Bavarian army defeats French at Duttlingen.
- The Royalist forces supporting Charles I in the English Civil War win the Battle of Adwalton Moor and gain control of Yorkshire.
- End of the reign of Empress Meisho of Japan
- Emperor Go-Komyo ascends to the throne of Japan
- Evangelista Torricelli invents the mercury barometer
- New England Confederation is formed
- Battle of Tüttlingen fought
- Baden-Baden pillaged by the French
- first two volumes of the Acta Sanctorum published
- Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve places the first cross atop Mount Royal
- Åmål is granted its city charter