Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC
- Emperor Er Shi of the Qin Dynasty of China is assassinated by his chief eunuch Zhao Gao. He is replaced by his nephew Ying Zi Ying, who in turn assassinates Zhao Gao.
- Second Punic War:
- The Roman general Gaius Claudius Nero fights an indecisive battle with Hannibal in the Battle of Grumentum, but escapes north to confront Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal.
- Hasdrubal Barca enters Italy, is defeated and killed at the Battle of the Metaurus River by Nero.
- Scipio Africanus Major defeats the last Carthaginian army in Spain.
- Philopoemen of the Achaean League defeats the Spartans under Machanidas, in the Battle of Mantinea.