Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC
- Rome capture and sack the Etruscan city of Veii after a 10-year siege
- Kyniska is the first woman to win a victory in the Olympic Games.
- Carthaginians are forced to abandon their siege of Syracuse (begun in 398 BC, but destroy Messina.
- Plato publishes his Apologia which is a defense of his mentor Socrates
- Agesilaus II, king of Sparta, leads an expedition to Asia to secure Greek cities against a Persian attack
- Kyniska, the daughter Archidamus II, becomes the first woman to win an event at the Olympic Games