Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC
- Battle of Marathon.
- Phidippides runs 40 kilometers from Marathon to Athens to announce the news of the Athenian victory; origin of the marathon long-distance race.
- Empedocles, Greek philosopher (+ circa 430 BC) (estimated date).
- Phidias, Greek sculptor (+ circa 430 BC) (estimated date).