Barnsley is a large town and a metropolitan district in South Yorkshire, England. Its population, according to the 2001 census, was 218,100. The Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley covers an area of 32,863 hectares. The Borough itself is split by the M1 motorway: rural to the west, and largely urban/industrial to the west.

The name "Barnsley" originates from Anglo-Saxon and derives from "Beorn's lay" (a lay being a clearing). The town is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1089.

The town lies on the River Dearne, approximately twenty kilometres north of Sheffield. The town is famous for coal mining, but all the mines have now closed. Institutions in the town include Barnsley College.

Barnsley is twinned with Schwabisch Gmund in Germany, and Gorlovka in Ukraine. The coat of arms for the town includes a coal miner and a glass-blower.

Famous people from Barnsley include Michael Parkinson, Geoffrey Boycott, Brian Glover, Darren Gough and Harold Bird.

Settlements in the borough of Barnsley include:

Birdwell, Bolton upon Dearne
Cawthorne, Cudworth
Darton, Dodworth, Dunford Bridge
Goldthorpe, Grimethorpe
Monk Bretton
Royston, South Yorkshire
Wombwell, Worsborough