A breve is a diacritical mark ˘ like a little round cup, in Romanian possible above the a (the ə schwa vowel) and in Esperanto possible above the u. It is also widely used in pronunciation keys to indicate that a vowel has a short sound.
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A breve is also a note in music, lasting twice as long as a semibreve (or whole note). Because it lasts longer than a bar in most modern time signatures, it is now rarely encountered, but in Mediaeval music it was the shortest note length, and could be either a half or a third as long as the longa.