The Cape Colony was a part of South Africa under British occupation during the 19th century. It stretched from the Atlantic ocean eastwards: the final eastern boundary, after several wars against the Xhosa, stood at the Fish river. In the north, the Orange River, also known as the Gariep River, served for a long time as the boundary, although some land between the river and the southern boundary of Botswana was later added to it.
The history of the Cape Colony starts in 1652 with the founding of Cape Town by the Dutch commander Jan van Riebeeck. Britain took over the territory in 1802, setting up a British colony on January 8, 1806. Cape Colony remained under British rule until the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, when it became known as the Cape Province.
For detailed history see History of Cape Colony.