French Sudan (Fr. Soudan) was a colony in French West Africa that had two separate periods of existence, first from 1890 to 1899, then from 1920 to 1958, when the territory became the independent nation of Mali.
It was created as a French territory on September 9, 1880 as "Upper Senegal", and was renamed the "French Sudan Territory" on August 18, 1890, with its capital at Kayes. On October 10, 1899 French Sudan was broken up; 11 southern provinces went to French Guinea, Ivory Coast, and Dahomey, although two were returned in the following year.
French Sudan was granted independence on September 22, 1960 as Mali.