Location:\nCentral Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo\n

Geographic coordinates:\n3 30 S, 30 00 E\n

Map references:\nAfrica\n

total:\n27,830 km²\n
land:\n25,650 km²\n
water:\n2,180 km²\n

Area - comparative:\nslightly smaller than Maryland\n

Land boundaries:\n
total:\n974 km\n
border countries:\nDemocratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km\n

Coastline:\n0 km (landlocked)\n

Maritime claims:\nnone (landlocked)\n

Climate:\nequatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and December to January\n

Terrain:\nhilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains\n

Elevation extremes:\n
lowest point:\nLake Tanganyika 772 m\n
highest point:\nMount Heha 2,670 m\n

Natural resources:\nnickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium, arable land, hydropower\n

Land use:\n
arable land:\n44%\n
permanent crops:\n9%\n
permanent pastures:\n36%\n
forests and woodland:\n3%\n
other:\n8% (1993 est.)\n

Irrigated land:\n140 km² (1993 est.)\n

Natural hazards:\nflooding, landslides\n

Environment - current issues:\nsoil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations\n

Environment - international agreements:\n
party to:\nBiodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection\n
signed, but not ratified:\nLaw of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban\n

Geography - note:\nlandlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo River watershed

See also : Burundi