Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. It borders France to the west, Piedmont to the north, and Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany to the east. It lies on the Ligurian Sea, a part of the Tyrrhenian Sea (northern Mediterranean Sea).
The region covers 5421 km² and has a population of 1,622,578 (2001 census); it is subdivided into 235 communes.
Ligurian coast enjoy a mild maritime climate, if compared with the semi-continental one of the Po valley, few kilometers northward; in January, Genoa records an average temperature of about 8-10°C, with no frost, which can occur only in the mountainous interior. Summer averages about 24-25°C. Rainfall can be very abundant at times; mountains very close to the coast create an orographic effect, so Genoa can see up to 2000 mm of rain in a year; other areas instead show the normal values of the Mediterranean area (500-800 mm).
It is noticeable that, despite the high population density, woods cover half of the total area.
Liguria is a very old name, dating back to pre-Roman times.