The Nordic countries is a term used collectively for five countries in Northern Europe. The Nordic Countries are also the member countries of the Nordic Council:
Lapland region has a distinct identity as well. In loose usage, the term Scandinavia is sometimes used as a synonym for Nordic countries. Strictly, however, political Scandinavia only includes Sweden, Norway and Denmark, while geographical Scandinavia only includes Sweden and Norway. The Nordic countries has an aggregate population of about 24 million.
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The Nordic countries are loosely united by historical and cultural ties. During the Viking era, the Scandinavian countries all shared a common culture, language and religion; Old Norse and Norse mythology. After being christened around the year 1000 the process of unification established Denmark, Norway and Sweden as separate kingdoms. Sweden eventually came to include Finland, when Iceland, the Faroe Islands, the Shetland Islands and large parts of Scotland and Ireland belonged to Norway. The Danish king for long periods dominated over large parts of England. In the 14th century Norway, Denmark and Sweden united under one regent, in the Kalmar Union. Denmark quickly gained the upper hand, and after a civil war in the early 16th century Sweden reestablished itself as a separate kingdom, but the union of Denmark and Norway would last until 1814.
After establishing itself as one of the Great powers in Europe during the 17th century Sweden would ultimately lose its foreign Dominions one by one, culminating with the loss of Finland to Russia in 1809. The 19th century saw political union between Sweden and Norway, and the rise of Scandinavism, which unsuccessfully strived once again to unite the three Scandinavian countries into one kingdom.
After World War I ended in 1917 Finland emerged for the first time as an independent nation and the perspective of a Nordic community was able to replace the dream of a united Scandinavia. Following World War II Iceland gained its independence from Denmark and the foundations for the Nordic council were laid.
The Nordic countries share similar traits in the policies implemented under the after-war period, especially in the social area. All Nordic countries have a large tax funded public welfare sectors and extensive social legislation. In most cases this is due to the political ambitions of the many Social Democrat governments that came to power during the after war period, in each of the Nordic countries.
After being christened around the first millennium the Nordic countries followed the Protestant reformation of the Catholic church which took place during the 16th century. The Nordic countries all had Lutheran state churches, which still today has a large membership count.
All Nordic countries, including the Faroe and Åland Islands, have a similar flag design, all based on the Dannebrog, the Danish flag. They display a cross with the intersection left of the center, the "Scandinavian cross".