Parma is a medieval city in northern Italy, with splendid architecture and a fine countryside around it. The city was most probably founded and named by the Etruscans, for a parma (circular shield) was a Latin borrowing, as were many Roman terms for particular arms, and "Parmeal" "Parmni" and "Parmnial" are names that appear in Etruscan inscriptions. Diodorus Siculus (XXII, 2,2; XXVIII, 2,1) reported that the Romans had changed their rectangular shields for round ones, imitating the Etruscans. Whether the Etruscan encampment was so named because it was round, like a shield, or whether its situation was a shield against the Gauls to the north, is more a matter of choice.
Stendhal was inspired by its Certosa (Charterhouse) for one of his best known books (La Chartreuse de Parme).
Famous people from Parma: