René Valdec-Rousseau was a French barrister and politician.

With Jules Simon, Louis Blanc and others he sat on the commission appointed to inquire into the labour question, making many important proposals, one of which, for the establishment of national banks, was partially realized in 1850. After the election of Louis Napoleon to the presidency he returned to his practice at the bar, and for some time after the coup d'état was in hiding to escape arrest. He came back to political life in the crisis of 1870, when he became mayor of Nantes in August and proclaimed the third republic there on September 4. He shortly afterwards resigned municipal office in consequence of differences with his colleagues on the education question.