Robert Dundas, 2nd Viscount Melville (1771-1851) was a British statesman, the son of Henry Dundas, the 1st Viscount.

Melville filled various political offices and was First Lord of the Admiralty fron 1812 to 1827 and from 1828 to 1830; his name is perpetuated by that of Melville Sound, because of his interest in Arctic exploration. His eldest son became Henry Dundas, 3rd Viscount Melville.