This article is part of theHistory of China series.
Southern and Northern Dynasties
During this period the process of sinicization accelerated among the non-Chinese arrivals in the north and among the aboriginal tribesmen in the south. This process was also accompanied by the increasing popularity of Buddhism (introduced into China in the first century A.D.) in both north and south China.
Despite the political disunity of the times, there were notable technological advances. The invention of gunpowder (at that time for use only in fireworks) and the wheelbarrow is believed to date from the sixth or seventh century. Advances in medicine, astronomy, and cartography are also noted by historians.
In the History of Vietnam, the Southern and Northern Dynasties (南北朝) (1527-1592, 1627-1672) followed the Le Dynasty (Later Le Dynasty) (後黎朝) (1428-1527) and preceded the Third Le Dynasty (1592-1627) of the Trinh (鄭) family in Vietnam.