The Stem technique in Skiing is usually credited to Mathias Zdarsky, from Austria, who invented it in the 1890s. Its variations gradually replaced the telemark technique in Alpine skiing.
The technique involves "stemming" out the uphill ski - pushing it out from being parallel with the downhill ski to form a V shape.
The three variations of the stem turn are:
The three variants together formed the basis of the Austrian Arlberg Technique and instruction system.