|Name, Symbol, Number||Xenon, Xe, 54|
|Chemical series ||Noble gases|
|Group, Period, Block||18 (VIIIA), 5, p|
|Density, Hardness ||5.9 kg/m3(273 K), NA|
|Atomic weight ||131.293 amu|
|Atomic radius (calc.) ||no data (108) pm|
|Covalent radius ||130 pm|
|van der Waals radius ||216 pm|
|Electron configuration ||[Kr]44d10 5s2 5p6|
|e- 's per energy level||2, 8, 18, 18, 8|
|Oxidation states (Oxide) ||0 (weak acid)|
|Crystal structure ||Cubic face centered|
|State of matter ||gas (nonmagnetic)|
|Melting point ||161.4 K (-169.1 °F)|
|Boiling point ||165.1 K (-162 °F)|
|Molar volume ||35.92 ×1010-3 m3/mol|
|Heat of vaporization ||12.636 kJ/mol|
|Heat of fusion ||2.297 kJ/mol|
|Vapor pressure ||NA|
|Speed of sound ||1090 m/s at 293.15 K|
|Electronegativity ||2.6 (Pauling scale) |
|Specific heat capacity ||158 J/(kg*K)|
|Electrical conductivity ||no data|
|Thermal conductivity ||0.00569 W/(m*K)|
|1st ionization potential ||1170.4 kJ/mol|
|2nd ionization potential ||2046.4 kJ/mol|
|3rd ionization potential ||3099.4 kJ/mol|
|Most Stable Isotopes|
|124Xe||0.1%||Xe is stable with 70 neutrons|
|126Xe||0.09%||Xe is stable with 72 neutrons|
|128Xe||1.91%||Xe is stable with 74 neutrons|
|129Xe||26.4%||Xe is stable with 75 neutrons|
|130Xe||4.1%||Xe is stable with 76 neutrons|
|131Xe||21.29%||Xe is stable with 77 neutrons|
|132Xe||26.9%||Xe is stable with 78 neutrons|
|134Xe||10.4%||Xe is stable with 80 neutrons|
|136Xe||8.9%||2.36 E21 y||Beta-||no data||136Ba
|SI units & STP are used except where noted.
is a chemical element
in the periodic table
that has the symbol Xe and atomic number
54. A colorless, very heavy, odorless noble gas
, xenon occurs in the earth's atmosphere in trace amounts and was part of the first noble-gas compound
Xenon is a member of the zero-valence elements that are called noble or inert gases. The word "inert" is no longer used to describe this chemical series since some zero valence elements do form compounds. In a vacuum tube xenon emits a beautiful blue glow when the gas is excited by electrical discharge. Using several hundred kilobars of pressure metallic xenon has been made.
This gas is most widely and most famously used in light-emitting devices such as bactericidal lamps, electron tubes, stroboscopic lamps and photo flash units, and lamps that are used to excite ruby lasers that then generate coherent light. Other uses;
- Used as a general anaesthetic.
- In nuclear energy applications it is used in bubble chambers, probes, and in other areas where a high molecular weight is a desirable quality.
- Its perxenates are used as oxidizing agents in analytical chemistry.
- The isotope Xe-133 is useful as a radioisotope.
Xenon (Greek xenon
meaning "stranger") was discovered by William Ramsay
and Morris Travers in 1898
in the residue left over from evaporating components of liquid air.
It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere
, occurring in one part in twenty million. The element is obtained commercially through extraction from the residues of liquefied air. This noble gas is naturally found in gases emitted from some mineral springs. Xe-133 and Xe-135 are synthesized by neutron
irradiation within air-cooled nuclear reactors.
Before 1962, xenon and the other noble gases gases were generally considered to be chemically inert and not able to form compoundss
. Evidence since this time has been mounting that xenon, along with other noble gases, do in fact form compounds. Some of the xenon compounds are; difluoride
, hexafluoride, sodium
perxenate, tetrafluoride, xenon deuterate, xenon hydrate
. The highly explosive
compound xenon trioxide
has also been made. There are at least 80 xenon compounds in which fluorine
are bonded to xenon. Some compounds of xenon are colored but most are colorless.
Naturally occurring xenon is made of eight stable
and one slightly radioactive isotopes
. Beyond these stable forms, there are 20 unstable isotopes that have been studied. Xe-129 is produced by beta decay
: 16 million years); Xe-131, Xe-132, Xe-134 and Xe-136 are fission
products of both U
-238 and Pu
-244. Because Xe is a tracer for two parent isotopes, Xe isotope ratios in meteorites
are a powerful tool for studying the formation of the solar system. The I-Xe method of dating
gives the time elapsed between nucleosynthesis
and the condensation of a solid object from the solar nebula
. Xenon isotopes are also a powerful tool for understanding terrestrial differentiation. Excess Xe-129 found in carbon dioxide
well gases from New Mexico
was believed to be from the decay of mantle
-derived gases soon after Earth's formation.
The gas can be safely kept in normal sealed glass
containers at standard temperature and pressure
. Xenon is non-toxic
, but many of its compounds are highly toxic due to their strong oxidation