Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century
- April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the western hemisphere between Spain and Portugal that the dividing line should lay 297.5 leagues west of the Moluccas. Spain gets monetary compensation in return for giving Portugal more territory that was in the earlier treaty.
- May 10 - The Turkish army under Suleiman I leaves Constantinople to once again invade Hungary
- September 8 - Recapture of Buda by the invading Turkish forces.
- September 23 - Vienna is besieged by Turkish forces.
- October 15 - With the season growing late, Suleiman abandons the siege.
- Emperor Charles V and Francis I of France sign the Treaty of Cambrai, or the "Ladies' Peace". Francis abandons his claims in Italy, but is allowed to retain Burgundy.
- Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, fails to bring about the divorce and annulment Henry VIII had sought and is forced to resign.
- Aylesbury is granted the county town of Buckinghamshire in England by King Henry VIII.
- Stephen Báthory becomes governor of Transylvania.
- Boromrajathira IV succeeds Rama Thibodi II as king of Ayutthaya.
- Fluorine is first described by Georg Agricola.
- Giorgio Vasari visits Rome.
- Pietro Bembo becomes historiographer of Venice.
- Heinrich Bullinger becomes pastor of Bremgarten.