Pro-active: (Table-driven)

  • CGSR (Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing protocol) - Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing protocol (CGSR) [Murthy96] S. Murthy and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, "An Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Networks", ACM Mobile Networks and App. J., Special Issue on Routing in Mobile Communication Networks, Oct. 1996, pp. 183-97.

  • DBF (Distributed Bellman-Ford routing protocol) - SHREE MURTHY, J.J. GARCIA-LUNA-AVECES Distributed Bellman-Ford routing protocol (DBF), A Routing Protocol for Packet Radio Networks, Proc. ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 86-95, November, 1995.

  • DSDV (Higly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector routing protocol) - C. E. PERKINS, P. BHAGWAT Higly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DTDV) for Mobile Computers Proc. of the SIGCOMM 1994 Conference on Communications Architectures, Protocols and Applications, Aug 1994, pp 234-244.

  • HSLS (Hazy Sighted Link State routing protocol) - CESAR SANTIVANEZ AND RAM RAMANATHAN Hazy Sighted Link State routing protocol (HSLS),BBN Technical Memorandum No. 1301, August 31, 2001.

  • HSR (Hierarchical State Routing protocol) - ALAN O'NEILL HONGYI LI HIERARCHICAL STATE ROUTING PROTOCOL Internet Draft, draft-oneill-li-hsr-00.txt Distance Source Distance Vector routing protocol (DSDV)

  • LCA (Linked Cluster Architecture) - M. GERLA, J. T. TSAI Multicluster, Mobile, Multimedia Radio Network ACM Wireless Networks, VOl 1, No.3, 1995, pp. 255-265

  • MMRP (Mobile Mesh Routing Protocol) - K. GRACE Mobile Mesh Routing Protocol (MMRP),

  • OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing Protocol) - PHILIPPE JACQUET, PAUL MUHLETHALER, AMIR QAYYUM, ANIS LAOUITI, LAURENT VIENNOT, THOMAS CLAUSEN Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-olsr-04.txt, work in progress, June 2001.

  • STAR (Source Tree Adaptive routing protocol) - J.J. GARCIA-LUNA, M. SPOHN Source Tree Adaptive Routing Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-star-00.txt, work in progress, October 1999.

  • TBRPF (Topology Broadcast based on Reverse-Path Forwarding routing protocol) - BHARGAV BELLUR, RICHARD G. OGIER, FRED L. TEMPLIN Topology Broadcast Based on Reverse-Path Forwarding (TBRPF) Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-tbrpf-01.txt, work in progress, June 2001.

  • WRP (Wireless Routing Protocol) - Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP) [Chen98] Tsu-Wei Chen and Mario Gerla, "Global State Routing: A New Routing Scheme for Ad-hoc Wireless Networks" Proc. IEEE ICC'98, 5 pages. http://

Reactive: (On-demand)
  • ARA (Ant-based Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks) - Mesut GŁnes et. al., ARA - the ant-colony based routing algorithm for manets, In Stephan Olariu, editor, Proceedings of the 2002 ICPP Workshop on Ad Hoc Networks (IWAHN 2002), pages 79-85, IEEE Computer Society Press, August 2002,

  • ABR (Associativity Based Routing protocol) - C.-K. TOH ASSOCIATIVITY-BASED LONG-LIVED ROUTING (ABR) PROTOCOL , Internet Draft,

  • AODV (Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector routing protocol) - C. PERKINS, E.ROYER AND S. DAS Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-aodv-11.txt, work in progress, Aug 2002.

  • BSR (Backup Source Routing protocol) - SONG GUO, OLIVER W. YANG Performance of Backup Source Routing (BSR) in mobile ad hoc networks p 440-444, Proc. 2002 IEEE Wireless Networking Conference

  • CHAMP (CacHing And MultiPath routing protocol) - ALVIN C. VALERA, WINSTON K.G. SEAH AND S.V. RAO, CHAMP: A Highly-Resilient and Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks. In Proceedings of the 5th IEEE Conference on Mobile and Wireless Communications Networks (MWCN 2002), Stockholm, Sept 9 - 11, 2002. Available from:

  • DSR (Dynamic Source Routing protocol) - D. JOHNSON, D. MALTZ, Y-C. HU AND J. JETCHEVA: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-dsr-09.txt, work in progress, April 2003.

  • DSRFLOW (Flow State in the Dynamic Source Routing protocol) - YIH-CHUN HU, DAVID B. JOHNSON, DAVID A. MALTZ Flow State in the Dynamic Source Routing Protocol Internet Draft, draft-ietf- manet-dsrflow-00.txt, work in progress, June 2001.

  • FORP (Flow Oriented Routing Protocol)

  • LBR (Link life Based routing), B. S. Manoj, R. Ananthapadmanabha, and C. Siva Ram Murthy, "Link life Based Routing Protocol for Ad hoc Wireless Networks", Proc. of The 10th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications 2001 (IC3N 2001), October 2001.

  • LMR (Lightweight Mobile Routing protocol) - M.S. CORSON AND A. EPHREMIDES Lightweight Mobile Routing protocol (LMR) ,A distributed routing algorithm for mobile wireless networks, Wireless Networks 1 (1995).

  • LUNAR (Lightweight Underlay Network Ad hoc Routing) - CHRISTIAN TSCHUDIN AND RICHARD GOLD Lightweight Underlay Network Ad hoc Routing (LUNAR),

  • MOR (Multipath On-demand Protocol)

  • RDMAR (Relative-Distance Micro-discovery Ad hoc Routing protocol) - G. AGGELOU, R. TAFAZOLLI Relative Distance Micro-discovery Ad Hoc Routing (RDMAR) protocol Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet- rdmar-00.txt, work in progress, September 1999.

  • SSR (Signal Stability Routing protocol) - R. DUBE, C. D. RAIS, K. WANG, AND S. K. TRIPATHI Signal Stability based adaptive routing (SSR alt SSA) for ad hoc mobile networks, IEEE Personal Communication, Feb. 1997.

  • TORA (Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm routing protocol) - V. PARK, S. CORSON TEMPORALLY-ORDERED ROUTING ALGORITHM (TORA) VERSION 1 Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-tora-spec- 03.txt, work in progress, June 2001.

  • PLBR (Preferred link based routing)-- R. S. Sisodia, B. S. Manoj, and C. Siva Ram Murthy, "A Preferred Link Based Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks", Journal of Communications and Networks, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 14-21, March 2002.


  • CBRP (Cluster Based Routing Protocol) - M. JIANG, J. LI, Y. C. TAY Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) Functional Specification Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-cbrp.txt, work in progress, June 1999.

  • CEDAR (Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing) - RAGHUPATHY SIVAKUMAR, PRASUN SINHA, VADUVUR BHARGHAVAN Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing (CEDAR) Specification, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-cedar-spec-00.txt

  • DDR (Distributed Dynamic Routing Algorithm) - NAVID NIKAEIN, HOUDA LABIOD, CHRISTIAN BONNET Distributed Dynamic Routing Algorithm (DDR) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, in proceedings of the MobiHOC 2000 : First Annual Workshop on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing

  • GSR (Global State Routing protocol) - Global State Routing protocol (GSR) [Iwata99] A. Iwata, C.-C. Chiang, G. Pei, M. Gerla, and T.-W. Chen, "Scalable Routing Strategies for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks" IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special Issue on Ad-Hoc Networks, Aug. 1999, pp.1369-79.

  • FSR (Fisheye State Routing protocol) - MARIO GERLA, GUANGYU PEI, XIAOYAN HONG, TSU-WEI CHEN Fisheye State Routing Protocol (FSR) for Ad Hoc Networks Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-fsr-00.txt, work in progress, June 2001.

  • HARP (Hybrid Ad Hoc Routing Protocol) - NAVID NIKAEIN, CHRISTIAN BONNET, NEDA NIKAEIN Hybrid Ad Hoc Routing Protocol - HARP, in proceeding of IST 2001: International Symposium on Telecommunications

  • HSR (Host Specific Routing protocol)

  • LANMAR (Landmark Routing Protocol for Large Scale Networks) - MARIO GERLA, XIAOYAN HONG, LI MA, GUANGYU PEI Landmark Routing Protocol (LANMAR) Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet- lanmar-01.txt, work in progress, June 2001.

  • ZRP (Zone Routing Protocol protocol) - ZYGMUNT J. HAAS, MARC R. PEARLMAN, PRINCE SAMAR THE BORDERCAST RESOLUTION PROTOCOL (BRP) Internet Draft, draft- ietf-manet-zone-zrp-04.txt, work in progress, July 2002.

  • BRP (Bordercast Resolution Protocol) - ZYGMUNT J. HAAS, MARC R. PEARLMAN, PRINCE SAMAR THE BORDERCAST RESOLUTION PROTOCOL (BRP) Internet Draft, draft- ietf-manet-zone-brp-02.txt, work in progress, July 2002.

  • IARP (Intrazone Routing Protocol) - ZYGMUNT J. HAAS, MARC R. PEARLMAN, PRINCE SAMAR THE INTRAZONE ROUTING PROTOCOL (IARP) Internet Draft, draft-ietf- manet-zone-iarp-02.txt, work in progress, July 2002.

  • IERP (Interzone Routing Protocol) - ZYGMUNT J. HAAS, MARC R. PEARLMAN, PRINCE SAMAR THE INTERZONE ROUTING PROTOCOL (IERP) Internet Draft, draft-ietf- manet-zone-ierp-02.txt, work in progress, July 2002.


  • DREAM (Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility) - S. BASAGNI, I. CHLAMTAC, V. R. SYROTIUK, B. A. WOODWARD A Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM) In Proc. ACM/IEEE Mobicom, pages 76-84, October 1998.

  • GLS(Grid) (Geographic Location Service) - JINYANG LI, JOHN JANOTTI, DOUGLAS S. J. DE COUTU, DAVID R. KARGER, ROBERT MORRIS A Scalable Location Service for Geographic Ad Hoc Routing M.I.T. Laboratory for Computer Science

  • LAR (Location-Aided Routing protocol) - Y.-B. KO, V. N. H. Location-Aided Routing in mobile Ad hoc networks In Proc. ACM/IEEE Mobicom, pages 66-75, October 1998.

  • GPSAL (GPS Ant-Like Routing Algorithm) - Daniel C‚mara, Antonio Alfredo F. Loureiro, A Novel Routing Algorithm for Hoc Networks, Baltzer Journal of Telecommunications Systems, 18:1-3, 85-100, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.''

  • ZHLS (Zone-Based Hierarchical Link State Routing) - JOA NG, I-TAI LU Zone-Based Hierchical Link State Routing (ZHLS). An abstract routing protocol and medium access protocol for mobile ad hoc networks Submitted for partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy (Electrical engineering) in January 1999.

Power aware:

  • ISAIAH (Infra-Structure Aodv for Infrastructured Ad Hoc networks) - ANDERS LINDGREN AND OLOV SCHEL…N Infrastructured ad hoc networks In Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Parallel Processing Workshops (International Workshop on Ad Hoc Networking (IWAHN 2002)). pages 64-70. August 2002.

  • PARO (Power-Aware Routing Optimization Protocol) - J. GOMEZ, A. T. CAMPBELL, M. NAGHSHINEH, C. BISDIKIAN, T.J. WATSON POWER-AWARE ROUTING OPTIMIZATION PROTOCOL (PARO) Internet Draft, draft-gomez-paro-manet-00.txt, work in progress, June 2001. http//

  • PAMAS (PAMAS-Power Aware Multi Access Protocol with Signaling Ad Hoc Networks) - S. SINGH, C.S. RAGHAVENDRA PAMAS & PAMAS-Power Aware Multi Access Protocol with Signaling Ad Hoc Networks


  • ABAM (On-Demand Associativity-Based Multicast) - C.-K TOH, G. GUICHAL, AND S. BUNCHUA On-demand associativity-based multicast routing for ad hoc mobile networks (ABAM), Vehicular Technology Conference, 2000. IEEE VTS Fall VTC 2000. 52nd , Volume: 3 , 2000, Page(s): 987 -993 vol.3

  • ADMR (Adaptive Demand-Driven Multicast Routing protocol) - JORJETA G. JETCHEVA, DAVID B. JOHNSON Adaptive Demand-Driven Multicast Routing protocol (ADMR) , Internet Draft, draft- jetcheva-manet-admr-00.txt, work in progress, June 2001.

  • AMRIS (Ad hoc Multicast Routing protocol utilising Increasing id-numbers) - C.W. WU AND Y.C. TAY Ad hoc Multicast Routing protocol utilizing Increasing id-numbers (AMRIS) In Proceedings of IEEE MILCOM'99, Atlantic City, NJ, Nov. 1999.

  • DCMP (Dynamic Core Based Multicast Routing Protocol - S. K. Das, B. S. Manoj, and C. S. R. Murthy, "Dynamic Core Based Multicast Routing Protocol", In Proc. ACM Mobihoc 2002, June 2002.

  • AMRoute (Ad hoc Multicast Routing Protocol) - MINGYAN LIU, RAJESH R. TALPADE, ANTHONY MCAULEY, ETHENDRANATH BOMMAIAH Ad hoc Multicast Routing Protocol (AMroute), UMD TechReport 99-8

  • CAMP (Core-Assisted Mesh Protocol) - J.J. GARCIA-LUNA-ACEVES AND E.L. MADRUGA The Core Assisted Mesh Protocol (CAMP), IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special Issue on Ad-Hoc Networks, Vol. 17, No. 8, pp. 1380-1394, August 1999.

  • CBM (Content Based Multicast) - H. ZHOU AND S. SINGH Content Based Multicast (CBM) in Ad Hoc Networks, Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Workshop on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MOBIHOC), Boston, MA, August 2000, pp. 5160. 260

  • DDM (Differential Destination Multicast) - L. JI, M. S. CORSON DIFFERENTIAL DESTINATION MULTICAST (DDM) SPECIFICATION , Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-ddm-00.txt

  • FGMP (Forwarding Group Multicast Protocol) - CHIANG, GERLA, ZHANG 1998 Forwarding Group Multicast Protocol (FGMP)

  • LAM (Lightweight Adaptive Multicast protocol) - L. JI AND M.S. CORSON Lightweight Adaptive Multicast protocol (LAM), In Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM'98, Sydney, Australia, Nov. 1998

  • DSR-MB (Simple Protocol for Multicast and Broadcast using DSR) - JORJETA G. JETCHEVA, YIH-CHUN HU, DAVID A. MALTZ, DAVID B. JOHNSON A Simple Protocol for Multicast and Broadcast in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-simple-mbcast-00.txt, work in progress, June 2001.

  • MAODV (Multicast Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector routing) - ELIZABETH M. ROYER, CHARLES E. PERKINS Multicast Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector routing (MAODV) , Internet Draft, draft- ietf-manet-maodv-00.txt

  • MCEDAR (Multicast CEDAR) - SINHA AND BHARGHAVAN Multicast core extraction distributed ad-hoc routing (MCEDAR). In Proc. of the Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 1999.

  • MZR (Multicast Zone Routing protocol) - VIJAY DEVARAPALLI, ALI A. SELCUK, DEEPINDER SIDHU Multicast Zone Routing protocol (MZR) , Internet Draft, draft-vijay-manet- mzr-01.txt, work in progress, June 2001.

  • ODMRP (On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol) - S.-J. Lee, M. Gerla, and C.-C. Chiang On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) Proceedings of IEEE WCNC'99, New Orleans, LA, Sep. 1999, pp. 1298-1302. Available from:

  • SRMP (Source Routing-based Multicast Protocol) - HOUDA LABOID, HASNAA MOUSTAFA Source Routing-based Multicast Protocol (SRMP) , Internet Draft, draft-labiod-manet-srmp- 00.txt, work in progress, June 2001.

Geographical Multicast (Geocasting):

  • LBM (Location Based Multicast) - Y.KO AND VAIDYA 1998 Location Based Multicast (LBM)

  • GeoGRID (Geographical GRID (see GLS)) - WEN-HWA LIAO AND JANG-PING SHEU AND YU-CHEE TSENG GeoGRID & Geographical GRID: A Fully Location-Aware Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Telecommunication Systems 2001,volume 18, number 1-3, pages 37-60

  • GeoTORA (Geographical TORA (see TORA)) - Y. KO AND N. VAIDYA A protocol for geocasting in mobile ad hoc networks (GeoTORA) Tech. Rep. 00-010, Dept. of Computer Science, Texas A&M University, March 2000. 23

  • MRGR (Mesh-Based Geocast Routing) - BOLENG, CAMP AND TOLETY 2001 Mesh-Based Geocast Routing (MRGR)


  • FQMM (Flexible QoS Model for MANET) - H. XIAO, WINSTON K.G. SEAH, A. LO and K.C. CHUA, A Flexible Quality of Service Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. In the proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 15-18 May 2000, Tokyo, Japan, pp445-449. Available from:

  • IMEP (Internet Manet Encapsulation Protocol) - M. S. CORSON, S. PAPADEMETRIOU, P. PAPADOPOULOS, V. PARK, A. QAYYUM INTERNET MANET ENCAPSULATION PROTOCOL (IMEP) SPECIFICATION , Internet Draft draft-ietf-manet-imep-spec-01.txt