Artaxerxes I was king of Persia from 464 BC to 424 BC. He belonged to the Achaemenid dynasty and was the successor of Xerxes I. He is mentioned in the two books of the Bible, Ezra and Nehemiah. He allowed the Jews to rebuild Jerusalem. He was followed on the throne by his son Xerxes II.
The name as given is the Greek form; the Persian form is Artakhshathra. He was later called Ardeshir.
(Artabanus of Persia, regent after death of Xerxes I)