Ciskei was a Bantustan in the south east of South Africa. In 1961 it became a separate administrative region and in 1972 was declared "self-governing". It was designated as a homeland for Xhosa speaking people and in the 1970s Xhosa speakers were resettled there.
In 1981 it was declared independent by the South African government and its residents lost their South African citizenship. In common with other Bantustans its independence was not recognised by the international community.
Its capital was Bisho and it had a population of 645,000.
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