Criminal law (penal law) is the body of law which regulate governmental sanctions (such as imprisonment and/or fines) as retaliation for crimes against the social order. The goal of this process is that of achieving criminal justice. According to criminal law, crimes are offences against the social order and government officials are responsible for the prosecution of offenders. The major objective of criminal law is deterrence and punishment, while that of civil law is individual compensation. Criminal offences consist of two distinct elements; the physical act (the actus reus, guilty act)and the requisite mental state with which the act is done (the mens rea, guilty mind). For example, in murder the 'actus reus is the unlawful killing of a person, while the 'mens rea is malice aforethought (the intention to kill or cause grievous injury). The criminal law also details the defences that defendants may bring to lessen or negate their liability (criminal respensability) and specifies the punishment which may be inflicted. Criminal law neither requires a victim, nor a victim's consent, to prosecute an offender. Furthermore, a criminal prosecution can occur over the objections of the victim and the consent of the victim is not a defense in most crimes.
Criminal law in most jurisdictions both in the common and civil law tradition is divided into two fields:
- Criminal procedure regulates the process for addressing violations of criminal law
- Substantive criminal law details the definition of, and punishments for, various crimes.
A society should not be judged on how it treats its outstanding citizens but by how it treats its criminals.....Fyodor Dostoyevsky
- Age of consent
- Animus nocendi
- Answer, Barratry, civil law, Crime, Double jeopardy
- Drunk driving
- Fifth Amendment rights of witnesses
- Grand jury
- Guilt, Legal immunity, justice, Mens rea, Misdemeanor
- Criminal negligence
- Plea bargain
- Plea of nolo contendere, Plea of temporary insanity, Sentence, social justice, Sodomy law
K. J. M. Smith, Lawyers, Legislators and Theorists: Developments in English Criminal Jurisprudence, 1800-1957 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998)