The Galilean transformation is used to transform between the coordinates of two coordinate systems in constant relative motion in Newtonian physics. The equations below, although apparently obvious, break down at speeds that approach the speed of light.
Unlike the Galilean transformation, the relativistic Lorentz transformations can be shown to apply at all velocities so far measured, and the Galilean transformation can be regarded as low-velocity approximations to the Lorenz transformation.
Central extension of the Galilean group
We can now give it a central extension into the Lie algebra spanned by E', P'i, C'i, L'ij (antisymmetric tensor), M such that M commutes with everything (i.e. lies in the center, that's why it's called a central extension) and