zh-cn:高句丽 zh-tw:高句麗 Goguryeo or Koguryo (高句麗; 고구려; pinyin: gao1 gou1 li2) (1st century BC-668) was a kingdom in southern Manchuria and northern Korea. It is often referred to as one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, along with Baekje and Silla. It was named after Gaogouli (高勾驪; gao1 gou1 li2)', an ancient Chinese prefecture in Xuantu commandry (玄菟) in modern Liaoning province.
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4 Modern politics
5 See also
6 External links
According to Samguk Sagi, King Jumong (posthumously called King Dongmyeongseong) founded the kingdom in 37 BC around what is now the border between China and North Korea.
It gained power while China was fragmented.
The maximum extent of the kingdom was reached during the reigns of King Gwanggaeto the Great and his son King Jangsu. During this period they ruled half of Korean penninsula and most of Manchuria. It was overthrown by an alliance of Silla and Chinese Tang Empire in 668.
Remains of castles, palaces and several artifacts including tomb paintings have been found in North Korea. Some ruins are also still visible in Manchuria, for example at Onyeosan ("Five Maiden Peaks") near Jian in northeast China, thought to be the site of the first city of Goguryeo. Some cultural heritage still remain in modern Korean culture, for example, Ondol, Goguryeo's indigenous heating system, can be found in every house in Korea nowadays.
The Goguryeo language is unknown except for small number of words, which suggests that it was different from Korean or Tungusic languages. Some of these words can be found in the old Korean language (early 10th-late 14th centuries) but were replaced by Silla-originated ones before long. It is interesting that some words including numerals correspond with Japanese ones. Some scholars believe that the languages of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Japanese language have common root back to 2500 years ago, and this common root has originated from the same root with modern Korean about 4000 years ago.
Both Korea and China claim Goguryeo as their own. Koreans have traditionally viewed Goguryeo as a Korean state. Most of Chinese scholars had believed it also, but recently China has launched a project to treat Goguryeo as a local government within China. History cannot be free from politics there.