Naturam Godse was the assassin of Mohandas Gandhi, one of the principal figures in the movement for India's independence from Britain. Godse was a right-wing Hindu who blamed Gandhi for his role in supporting the Partition of the subcontinent into India and Pakistan. His writings explaining his motivations were banned by the government of India for many years. Following his assassination of Gandhi, Godse was tried and executed. His ties to the Hindu right-wing led to the banning of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) after Gandhi's assassination.

Godse's immediate motivation for the assassination is usually ascribed to Gandhi's January 13, 1948 decision to fast to the death unless the Indian central government reversed a decision to withhold the transfer of 55 crore (550 million) rupees (which was to be paid in accordance with the partition agreements) to the government of Pakistan. The Indian government immediately reversed its decision, and this prompted Godse to assassinate Gandhi on January 30, 1948.

The gun used by Godse was a Beretta 1934 semi-automatic pistol in .380 ACP caliber, serial number 606824.