Robert Hofstadter (February 5, 1915 - November 17, 1990) was the winner of the 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons."

He was born in New York City. His parents were Polish Jews who had emigrated to the United States at the turn of the century.

Robert Hofstadter is the father of the cognitive scientist and philosopher Douglas R. Hofstadter (born 1945), probably best known for his 1980 Pulitzer Prize-winning book Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid.

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