The Southern Hemisphere is the part of Earth's surface that is south of the equator.
It contains four continents (Africa, Australia, South America and Antarctica) separated by four oceans (South Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean and Antarctic Ocean).
Summer occurs around December to February and winter around June to August.
This region has historically been seen as less developed and poorer than the Northern Hemisphere. However, the Southern Hemisphere is also significantly less polluted than the Northern Hemisphere due to lower overall population densities, lower levels of industrialisation, and smaller land masses across the southern temperate zone.
The South Pole is oriented towards the center of our galaxy, and this, combined with clearer skies makes for excellent viewing of the night sky from the Southern Hemisphere.
See also: Northern Hemisphere, seasons, solstice, equinox, Tropic of Capricorn.