Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century
- The Netherlands establish a trading colony at Kaohsiung on Taiwan.
- The Dutch establish a settlement on Manhattan.
- Oslo is destroyed by fire. When rebuilt by Christian IV, it would be renamed Christiania.
- Claudio Monteverdi publishes Tancredi e Clorinda.
- Jean Louis Guez de Balzac publishes his Lettres.
- Bernardo de Balbuena publishes El Bernardo.
- Santa Rosalia makes a miraculous appearance during a plague in Palermo.
- Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel) first recorded in America.
- Jakob Bartsch records the constellation Camelopardalis.
- Dr Challoner's Grammar School is founded.
- The Palace of Versailles is first built, as a hunting lodge.
- Chateau Cheverny begins construction.
- July - George Fox, Quakers founder (+ 1691)
- October 30 - Paul Pellisson, French author (+ 1693)
- Koxinga, Chinese military leader (+ 1662)
- Père François de La Chaise (+ 1709)