Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century
- February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated.
- December 16 - Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland.
- End of the first period of republican government called the Commonwealth of England. The Rump Parliament was disbanded by Oliver Cromwell. See also the Long Parliament and Southamptonshire.
- Marcello Malpighi becomes a doctor of medicine.
- Stephen Bachiler returns to England.
- January 13 - Philipp Jakob Spener, theologian (+ 1705)
- February 17 - Arcangelo Corelli, composer (+ 1713)
- April 2 - Prince George of Denmark, consort of Queen Anne of Great Britain
- June 26 - Cardinal André-Hercule de Fleury, Bishop of Fréjus, chief minister of France under Louis XV