- September 2 - Great Fire of London: A large fire breaks out in London in the house of Charles II's baker on Pudding Lane near London Bridge. The fire burns for three days destroying 10,000 buildings including St. Paul's Cathedral, but only 16 people are known to have died.
- Sir Isaac Newton uses a prism to split sunlight into its component colours, which helped us understand the nature of light more comprehensively. (See optical spectrum).
- Lund University founded in Lund, Sweden
- Newark, New Jersey founded
- Jean Talon completes a census of New France, the first census in North America
- Louis XIV founds the French Academy of Sciences.