Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century
- February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition.
- Galileo Galilei is forced to recant his heliocentric views. Eppur si muove.
- Foreign missionaries are expelled from Ethiopia by Negus Fasilidas.
- February 23 - Samuel Pepys, English civil servant and diarist.
- October 14 - Prince James Stuart, later King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland.
- Emperor Go-Komyo of Japan